Technology of Education Vs. Technology in Education
The term ‘technology in education’ refers to the use of technological advancement such as various equipment, material and machines for educational purposes. It involves the increasingly complex range of audio-visual equipment, hardware and sophisticated electronic devices like projectors, films, radio, television, tape recorder, tele-text and computer aided instructions for individualized and group learning.
The term technology in education is thus a service concept like technology in the service of farming or agriculture or science in the service of mankind. In this sense, educational technology can provide its services to the teachers on the following basis-
- For explaining the purpose and functions of different forms of appliances, equipment and audio-visual material and mass media.
- For providing training in acquiring the material and handling the equipment to overcome their reluctance to use new media and material.
- For showing the relevance of the use of the equipment and material in the context of individualized and group learning for achieving the goals of formal or non-formal education.
The term ‘technology of education’ or ‘educational technology’ cannot limit itself to the role of service as confined in the case of technology in education. The term, technology of education, does not represent something added or helped from outside as sounded in the case of technology in education. It signifies a system or technological approach to the problems of education. Emphasizing on this point of view, T.K. Robinson (1976) writes:
The strongest protagonists for educational technology are not, however, satisfied with a role limited to technology in education and the provision of audio-visual aids. They see themselves as crucially involved in the design and evaluation of systems of learning involving an understanding of the psychology of learning and of communication and information theory to be used to establish a rational for good teaching practice which uses a variety of media and modes and which enables the teacher to deploy his skills more effectively and apply them more widely. This is technology of education.
The following conclusions can be drawn about the concept of educational technology:
- It cannot be taken as a synonym to audio-visual aids and technology in education emphasizes the concept of service, i.e. the use of different equipment, gadgets and mass media.
- It must mean technology of education presenting itself as a system for bringing improvement in the total process of teaching-learning by carefully analyzing its problems and re-organizing all available resources in an economic way for obtaining the optimum results.
- It has various constituents like instructional technology, teaching technology, behaviour technology, programmed learning, microteaching, system analyses, management of teaching-learning, teacher or pupil behaviour, etc. Not a single one of these alone is enough to represent the concept of educational technology. All these branches, innovations, approaches and strategies should be integrated as a whole according to the needs and requirements of the system represented by educational technology at a particular time in a given situation for accomplishing its useful objectives.
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