The New Social Order: Meaning | Bases | Common Features
Meaning and Definition of New Social Order
Sociologists use three terms for the form of a society- social system, social structure and social order. The use of the term ‘social order’ was started by American sociologists and now this term is much vogue.
When we talk of social system or social order in the context of a country or nation, we mean the social order that has developed on the basis of different sub-social systems- religion, political system, economic system and education, etc., We can define it in this form in brief- “By social order of a country is meant the social order that has developed as a result sub-social orders.”
Bases of New Social Order in India
At one time, the social order in our country was chiefly based on religion sub-social order, but now, it is chiefly based on sub-social orders of political system, economic system and education; but it should not be taken to mean that religion and other sub-social orders are not contributing in the determination of its form; they all are contributing, but in a little measure. Of them, first comes the political system, so we shall discuss it first.
We have democratic political system in our country. The Preamble of our Constitution has expressed its basic spirit in very brief. At present, its Preamble reads as follows:
“We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign socialist secular democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens:
Justice, social, economic and political;
Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
Equality of status and of operation; and to promote among them all;
Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation;
In our Constitution Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do Gerevt Adopt, Enact and give to ourselves this Constitution.”
It is evident from this Preamble that India is a sovereign democratic republic and it is based on six basic principles of freedom, equality, fraternity, socialism, secularism and justice. Following these principles, all citizens have been conferred upon equal rights in the Constitution and equal duties have been determined for everybody. Besides, class discrimination on any basis of caste, religion and sex has been abolished. The government has legislated national laws on the basis of the basic principles. As a result, a new social order is developing in the country which is called democratic socialistic social order.
Features of New Social Order
- In the present Indian social order, all citizens have freedom to express thought and effect their development, but without impeding in anyone’s freedom and without exploiting anybody.
- All individuals enjoy equal rights in it and equal duties are specified for everybody.
- All individuals are expected to live with the spirit of fraternity, everybody should treat everybody with love, sympathy and cooperation.
- The fourth feature of a democratic socialistic social order is- socialistic order. In a democratic socialistic social order, no discrimination is practiced on any basis of caste, religion and sex, etc. In it, no discrimination is practiced on the economic basis and emphasis is laid on elimination of exploitation taking place in the economic field and emphasis is laid on keeping minimum difference in the remuneration of physical work and intellectual work, and all are given equal significance. Democracy is a staunch supporter of human rights, as a result, it emphasizes on the progress of backward and low class people. It clarifies that equality in the society can be attained in the situation. The state too has undertaken solid steps for it, as a result of which caste and religion bindings are becoming loose. All people study together, live together, eat together and take part in social and political programmes together. Not only this, the inter-caste marriages too are being accorded approval now.
- The fifth chief feature of a democratic socialistic social order is secularism. In the new social order of India, all people have the freedom to follow their respective religions. It is our effort that such society be constructed in which there is goodwill among people of all religion.
- Democracy is a staunch opponent to conflict. It emphasizes on solution of issues by dialogue in place of conflict. So justice for all is provided in a democratic socialistic social order. This is the sixth and special feature of new Indian social order.
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