Gandhiji’s Ultimate Aims of Education | Curriculum | Wardha Scheme
Ultimate Aims of Education
Self-realization is the ultimate aim of our life as well as the ultimate aim of education. Spiritual freedom provides self-realization. Development of moral character is also included in the ultimate aim of education.
- Arithmetic- Arithmetic should be correlated with life situations. The various processes of arithmetic should be correlated with the basic crafts. He also considered that arithmetic is a very useful subject for day to day life.
- Social Studies- Gandhiji wanted that children should acquire knowledge of social studies including history, geography, civics and current events for promoting the status of an individual.
- General Sciences- General sciences viz. zoology, physiology, chemistry, botany and astronomy should be taught for promoting intelligent and scientific outlooks. Domestic science should also be added for the girls in the fourth and fifth classes.
- Music and Drawing- These subjects should be included for creating the real interest in education.
- Basis crafts- Basis crafts including agriculture, spinning, weaving, wood work, gardening and leader work should be included in accordance with local conditions of life and society. Gandhiji asserted that education should be craft centered and hence craft has a primary place in Gandhiji’s system of education.
- Mother tongue- He emphasized that the mother tongue is to be used as the medium of instruction in the schools because mother tongue is an effective medium for expression and communication of ideas.
Gandhiji’s Method of Teaching
- Education through Crafts- Gandhiji emphasized that education should be given through the medium of some crafts or produced work.
- Emphasis on Activity Method and Learning by Self Experience- In the field of learning, Gandhiji emphasized activity method. He asserted that learning by doing and learning by self experience is very effective.
- Correlation Method- Gandhiiji advocated the method of correlation. Education of different subjects should be in the form of correlated knowledge and not in the form of separate subjects.
- Lecture and Questioning Method- Gandhiji accepted the use of lecture method as well as of questioning method.
- Mother tongue as the medium of instruction- Gandhiji wanted that all education must be given through the medium of mother tongue.
Wardha Scheme (Gandhiji’s Fundamental of Basic Education)
- Ideal of Citizenship- Wardha scheme of education encourages operation and lays the foundation of ideal citizenship. It will enable the child to discharge his duties and responsibilities of a good citizen.
- Cult of Non Violence- Gandhiji wanted the future citizens of this country to be imbued with the ideal of non-violence.
- Self Supporting Elements- Wardha scheme of education is based on the principle “Learn while you earn and earn while you learn”. The pupils must be able to earn the salary of their teachers through the sale of the products of their crafts.
- Craft as the Centre of Education- Education should be given centre to the craft or productive work. All subjects like history, geography, arithmetic, science, language, music and painting etc. should be correlated with craft. By teaching craft, his objective was not to produce craftsman but he wanted to exploit the craft for educative purposes.
- Mother tongue to be the medium of Instruction- Gandhiji was a great champion of mother tongue. He stressed that mother tongue should be the medium of instruction. The mother tongue will help the child to think quickly to express easily and freely and to bring out the clarity of ideas.
- Free and Compulsory Education- Gandhiji asserted free, compulsory and universal education to the children of age group of 7 to 14 years. As a concession, however, girls if their guardians so desire could be withdrawn from the school after their twelfth years. During this period of seven years, Gandhiji planned to include primary, middle and high school education. He stated that primary education was the minimum which must be given to all.
- Relation with Life- Education in the school should be closely related to the activities of the life and problems of children. This is to be achieved through the principle of correlation and integration. Education helps the child in understanding and solving the problems of life.
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