Methods of Teaching in Pragmatism
The method of teaching according to pragmatism school of philosophy is rooted in the psychological needs of the students rather in the logical of the subject. The following should be the essentials of principles of teaching method-
- Principle of Integration- In the whole of the learning process, the principle of integration is highly needed. On human mind itself is a unity and there are not water tight compartment in it. Therefore, pragmatists are of the view that the integration will be possible if knowledge and skills are learner through activities that are purposeful.
- Project method- The outstanding contribution of pragmatism to educational practice is the project method. Kilpatrick has defined a project as the whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. Through this method a problem is posed and a situation is created. The pupils find a solution after trying out various possibilities. When this method of teaching is applied, children can develop their insight, foresight and various skills. This project is carried in the social environment. It teaches the student co-operation, mutual help and sympathy. There are many kinds of projects. Out of these, producer’s type, consumer’s type, problem type and specific learning type are the four main types. When we apply this project method, we have five stages viz. providing a situation, choosing a project, planning, executed and judging or evaluating.
- Principle of action or Learning by Doing- Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in situations. Every learning process has some experience at the base. A child learns while participating in various activities. We can consider learning as the process of social integration. Hence, the principle of pragmatism in educational method is learning by activity or learning by doing or learning through experience. Pragmatists believe that the child is spontaneously active and therefore activities that are purposeful, efficient and orderly should be preferred to those that are boisterous, thoughtless and mechanical. Teacher should create a problem solving attitude in his students.
- Principle of providing Real life situation- This principle is based upon the interest, desires and inclinations of the child. Pragmatists believe that methods of teaching should not be dogmatically accepted but they should be forged a fresh in the light of real life situation. So, the principle of the pragmatic method of teaching is to establish a relation with the life of the child, he desires, interest, needs and purposeful activities.
- Experimental method- Another significant method of teaching for pragmatism is experimental method. This method holds that knowledge is gained after experimentation. Hence, pragmatists consider the school as a pattern of social action and its entire emphasis in the instrumental techniques on the child not on the book or not in the teacher of the subject.
Pragmatism and Role of Teacher
- Must be an Experimentalist- A teacher must be a practical, trained and efficient. He should have the knowledge of the child’s interest and changing needs of the society. A teacher should be intelligent, efficient and practical.
- Must be a Helper- The teacher is a friend and a helper of the student. The teacher is to provide child with opportunities for experimenting in the school and on the field. They should have sympathetic and personal relations with the child. They should have sympathetic and personal relations with the child. They should motivate the child in such a way which may help the child in solving his problem.
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