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Glaser’s Basic Teaching Model

Glaser’s Basic Teaching Model

Components of Glaser’s Basic Teaching Model

The basic teaching model was developed by Robert Glaser (1962) on the basis of psychological principles. It is termed as ‘basic’ because it tries to explain the whole teaching process in an appropriate way dividing it into the following four basic components or parts:

  1. Instructional objectives (A)
  2. Entering behaviour (B)
  3. Instructional procedures (C)
  4. Performance assessment (D)

Instructional objectives:

These indicate the stipulated goals that a student is supposed to attain upon completion of a part of instruction.

Entering Behaviour:

It means the initial behaviour of the student before the beginning of instruction. It is his basic potential or level of performance in terms of educational abilities comprising the factors like previous knowledge of the subject or subjects, intellectual ability, learning ability and motivational state. The assessment of entering behaviour is a significant aspect of an instructional process. Usually, it is a starting point, but in this model, it occupies the second place and is viewed in the context of the pre-set instructional objectives. However, in actual teaching-learning situations, both interact to influence and help each other for the success of the whole instructional process.

Instructional procedures:

These are the most active or functional parts of teaching process. These represent the teaching methods, strategies and student-teacher interaction patterns involved in teaching. The first two components are- the stipulated instructional objectives and the entering behaviour, and work as a deciding base for the selection and use of the instructional procedures.

Performance assessment:

This last component is related with the task for assessing the performance of the learner. In terms of one’s entry behaviour and stipulated objectives, his terminal behaviour is assessed through some suitable evaluation techniques (test, observations, etc.). The assessment of the performance may prove as an effective ‘feedback’ device for each of the steps and elements of the teaching process. The objectives may be modified and instructional procedures may be improved based on the end results shown under the performance step.

Fundamental elements of Glaser’s Teaching Model


The model tries to pinpoint the four basic functions, processes and major activities comprising the whole teaching-learning process. The sequence to be followed in the instructional process also is brought into limelight.


The flow of activities in this model is quite sequential. Firstly the objectives to be achieved through the interaction carried out by the teacher are fixed. Then attempts are made to assess the potentiality of the learners in terms of their entry behaviour. Then, in the light of the entry behaviour, the school instructional work is carried out to achieve the stipulated objectives and how far these objectives have been realised is ascertained in the last phase of the model.

Principle of reaction:

The main principles of reaction are summarized here:

  1. Principle of active involvement and expertise: The teacher has to remain quite active in the execution of this model. He has to acquire essential skills in the formulation of the objectives, assessment of entry and terminal behaviours and devising suitable means and ways for the realization of the set objectives. At every stage, he has to develop proper understanding of the potential and difficulties of his students for reaching the goals.
  2. Principle of interdependence: The four stages involving objectives, entry behaviour, instructional process and assessment of its outcomes are quite interconnected and interdependent. The student’s responses are to be understood and dealt with in the light of such interaction and dependence.
  3. Principle of correction and follow-up: If the assessment in terms of the terminal behaviour does not match with the aspirations in terms of the set objectives and the entry behaviour, there lies something wrong either with the instructional process or with the setting of the objectives. Anything going wrong should be detected and followed with necessary correction and subsequent activities for the improvement of the process.

Social system:

This model is sufficiently structured and supposed to be dominated by the active role and control of the teacher on the whole process of instruction from the beginning till the end. Its success depends on the competency and ability of the teacher in terms of the acquisition of various skills like formulation of objectives, employment of methods and strategies and techniques of evaluation.

Support system:

The model for its success requires additional support in terms of the following things:

  1. Requirement of sufficient pre-service and in-service training facilities for teachers to acquire needed skills and competencies for the use of the model.
  2. Need for the desirable teaching-learning situations and environment for the employment of suitable teaching strategies and instructional technology.
  3. Need for the appropriate evaluation devices for the assessment of entry and terminal behaviour of the pupils.

Application of this model

This model is applicable to any teaching-learning situation preferably dominated by the teacher and requiring the flow of knowledge and information in a quite systematic and structured way and realising some well-defined instructional objectives within the limited means of the usual classroom situations.

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