7 Important Factors affecting Teaching-Learning Process
It has been found out that the pupil’s difficulty in teaching may be due to many factors within himself. Some important factors which may affect the teaching-learning process are as follows-
- Intellectual factor- The term refers to the individual mental level. Success in school is generally closely related to level of the intellect. Pupils with low intelligence often encounter serious difficulty in mastering schoolwork. Sometimes pupils do not often do not learn because of special.
A low score in one subject and his scores in other subjects indicate the possible presence of a special deficiency. Psychology reveals to use that an individual possess different kinds to intelligence. Knowledge of the nature of the pupil’s intellect is of considerable value in the guidance and the diagnosis of disability. The native capacity of the individual is of prime importance in determining the effectiveness of the learning process.
- Learning factors- Factors owing to lack of mastery of what has been taught, faulty methods of work or study, and narrowness of experimental background may affect the learning process of any pupil. If the school proceeds too rapidly and does not constantly check up on the extent to which the pupil is mastering what is being taught, the pupil accumulates a number of deficiencies that interfere with successful progress.
In arithmetic, for instance, knowledge of basic addition is essential to successful work in multiplication. Weakness in addition will contribute directly to the deficiency in multiplication. Likewise, failure in history may be due to low reading ability or weakness in English. Similarly, because of faulty instruction, the pupil may have learned inefficient methods of study. Many other kinds of difficulty which are directly related to learning factors may interfere with progress.
- Physical factors- Under this group are included such factors as health, physical development, nutrition, visual and physical defects and glandular abnormality. It is generally recognized that ill health retards physical and motor development, and malnutrition interferes with learning and physical growth. Children suffering from visual, auditory and other physical defects are seriously handicapped in developing skills such as reading and spelling. It has been demonstrated that various glands of internal secretion, such as the thyroid and pituitary glands affects behaviour. The health of the learner will likely to affect his ability to learn and his power to concentrate.
- Mental factors- Attitude falls under mental factors attitude are made up of organic and kinesthetic elements. They are not to be confused with emotions that are characterized by internal visceral disturbance. Attitudes are more or less of definite sort. They play a large part in the mental organization and general behaviour of the individual. Attitudes are also important in the development of personality. Among these attitudes are interest, cheerfulness, affection, prejudice, open mindedness and loyalty. Attitudes exercise a stimulating effect upon the rate of learning and teaching and upon the progress in school.
The efficiency of the work from day to day and the rapidity with which it is achieved are influenced by the attitude of the learner. A favourable mental attitude facilitates learning. The factor of interest is very closely related in nature to that of symbolic drive and reward.
- Emotional and Social factor- Personal factors such as instincts and emotions and social factors such as cooperation and rivalry are directly related to a complex psychology of motivation. It is a recognized fact that the various responses of the individual to various kinds of stimuli are determined by a wide variety of tendencies. Some of these are innate tendencies are constructive and others are harmful. For some reason a pupil may have developed a dislike for some subject because he may fail to see its value, or may lack foundation. This dislike results in bad emotional state. Some pupils are in a continuing state of unhappiness because of fear of being victims of the disapproval of their teachers and classmates. This is an unwholesome attitude and affects the learning process to a considerable degree. This is often times the result of bad training. Social discontent springs from the knowledge or delusion that one is below others in welfare.
- Teacher’s Personality- The teacher as an individual personality is an important element in the learning environment or in the failures and success of the learner. The way in which his personality interacts with the personalities of the pupils being taught helps to determine the kind of behaviour which emerges from the learning situation. The supreme value of a teacher is not in the regular performance of routine duties, but his power to lead and to inspire his pupils through the influence of his moral personality and example. Strictly speaking, personality is made up of all the factors that make the individual what he is, the complex pattern of characteristics that distinguishes him from the others of his kind. Personality is the product of many integrating forces. In other words, an individual’s personality is composite of his physical appearance, his mental capacity, his emotional behaviour and his attitude towards others. Effective teaching and learning are the results of an integrated personality of the teacher. Generally speaking, pupils do not like a grouchy teacher who cannot control his temper before the class. It is impossible for a teacher with a temper to create enthusiasm and to radiate light and sunshine to those about him. Pupils love a happy, sympathetic, enthusiastic and cheerful teacher. Effective teaching and learning are the result of love for the pupils, sympathy for their interests, tolerance and a definite capacity for understanding. The teacher must therefore recognize that in all his activities in the classroom he is directly affecting the behaviour of the growing and learning organism.
- Environmental factor- Physical conditions needed for learning is under environmental factor. One of the factors that affect the efficiency of learning is the condition in which learning takes place. This includes the classrooms, textbooks, equipments, school, supplies and other instructional materials.
In the school and at home, the conditions for learning must be favourable and adequate if teaching is to produce the desired results. It cannot be denied that the type and quality of instructional materials and equipment play an important part in the instructional efficiency of the school. It is difficult to do a good job of teaching in a poor type of building and without adequate equipment and instructional materials. A school building or a classroom has no merit when built without due regard to its educational objectives and functions.
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