Philosophy of Education | Impact of Philosophy on Education
The education of society is chiefly based on the form of society, its philosophical thought, political system, psychological facts and progress in science. Of these, the impact of philosophy is very stable. The aims of education are determined by metaphysics of philosophy, curriculum and teaching methods by epistemology and logic, and the duties of teachers and students are determined by axiology and ethics. The clarification is presented as follows-
- Philosophy and Concept of Education- Philosophy analyzes the form of education. We come to know the correct concept of education by this analysis. For example, naturalistic philosophies consider education as a natural activity; pragmatist philosophies consider it as a social activity and idealistic philosophies consider it as a spiritual activity.
- Philosophy and Aims of Education- The foremost part philosophy is metaphysics. It analyzes creation and creator, soul and God and life and death etc., and on this basis are determined the aims of human life. These aims are realized with the help of education. For example, naturalistic philosophies consider man as a higher animal, so they lay emphasis on the development of his physical power by education; pragmatist philosophies consider man as social being, so they lay emphasis on his social development, and idealistic philosophies consider man as having the soul, so they emphasis on his spiritual development.
- Philosophy and Curriculum of Education- The second part of philosophy is epistemology and logic. It analyzes the form of knowledge and on its basis, such knowledge is included in the curriculum of education which is considered to be essential for the physical and spiritual life. Moreover, curriculum is the means to realize aims of education therefore if aims of education are influenced by philosophy as well. Historical facts also support this fact. The society which naturalistic philosophy has a say, man in such a society is prepared to lead a happy life, and for that physical activities, physical science and vocational subjects are chiefly included in the curriculum. The society in which pragmatist philosophy has an influenced, man in such a society is prepared to lead a social life and for that social subjects and social activities are given prominent place in the curriculum and the society in which idealistic philosophy has an influence, in such a society man is prepared for self-realization and for that literature, religion and philosophy are included in the curriculum.
- Philosophy and Teaching Methods- In epistemology and logic branches of philosophy are analyzed human intellect, knowledge and the methods to attain the knowledge. The philosophers provide teaching methods on this basis. For example, naturalistic philosophers consider man as psychophysical being so they lay emphasis on learning by sense organs; pragmatist philosophies consider man as a social being so they emphasis on social being so they lay emphasis on learning by social activities, and idealistic philosophies consider man as a living being having the soul, so they lay emphasis on soul-centered methods.
- Philosophy and Discipline- The third chief part of philosophy is axiology and ethics. It analyzes in detail the actions that should be done or refrained by human beings. On the basis of this knowledge, the concept of discipline is determined. For example, naturalistic philosophies consider man as natural creation, so they advise them to abide by the natural laws, they support only natural morality; pragmatist philosophies consider man as a social being, so they advise him to be abide by the social norms, they term abidance by the social norms as discipline, they support social morality; and idealistic philosophies consider man as a living being having the soul, so they advise him to abide by divine laws. To them obedience by divine laws in discipline, they support spiritual morality.
- Philosophy, Teacher and Student- Axiology and ethics analyze the form of man and his doable and undoable action in detail. According to this analysis, the form of teacher and students and their duties are determined. For example, naturalistic philosophers consider man as a natural creation who is born with certain innate powers on the basis of which his development takes place, so they allow some freedom to him for self-expression. They expect of the teachers only this much that they would help in the natural development of the students. Pragmatist philosophers consider man as a social being, so they advise teachers and students to abide by the social conduct and lay emphasis on the development of social self at first. And idealistic philosophies consider man as having the soul and do not distinguish between teacher and student, so they advise them about restraint of sense organs and self-control.
- Philosophy and School- Often all philosophers lay down code of conduct for man and they plan education on its basis. They also discuss where and how to conduct education. Naturalistic philosophers oppose any type of system imposed by the teachers in schools. In naturalistic schools the children are free to do things to any time and at any place of their free volition. Pragmatist philosophers lay emphasis on creating higher social environment in the schools. In these schools, the children learn by taking part in collective activities in a group. The schools with idealistic philosophical ideology lay emphasis on creating spiritual environment. The teachers in these are self-aware and the students are obedient.
- Philosophy and other Problems of Education- Philosophy also consider other problems of education, such as mass education, women education and state inference in education etc. Not only this, we also make use of philosophical principles for the solution of different problems being confirmed in the educational field.
Naturalistic philosophers consider man only a natural creation and consider that man takes birth with certain innate powers and his development depends on these powers, and because innate power of different men are different therefore we cannot make all individuals similar or equal. So, different types of education would have to be arranged for different children, then we would have to arrange education on the basis of their inherent individual differences.
Pragmatic philosophers respect individuality of man, but only within context. These philosophies do not imagine the existence of man without society. They consider education as the birth right of man and this education should compliment to individual and social interests and welfare.
On the contrary, idealistic philosophers consider man complete from birth itself and consider education as necessary for the experience of this completeness. In their views, all people are equal and all of them eligible for education, and equal education should be provided for them all.
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