Professional Management- Functions, Objectives, Responsibility
Meaning of Management
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfilment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.
Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”.
According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ‘POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for Reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.
Functions of Professional Management
For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. These are
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:
- Identification of activities.
- Classification of grouping of activities.
- Assignment of duties.
- Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
- Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Staffing involves:
- Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place).
- Recruitment, Selection & Placement.
- Training & Development.
- Performance Appraisal.
- Promotions & Transfer.
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:
- Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.
- Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.
- Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.
- Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc. from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding.
It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling has following steps:
- Establishment of standard performance.
- Measurement of actual performance.
- Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
- Corrective action.
Objectives of Professional Management
The main objectives of professional management are:
Getting maximum results with minimum efforts-
The main objective of management is to secure maximum outputs with minimum efforts & resources. Management is basically concerned with thinking & utilizing human, material & financial resources in such a manner that would result in best combination. This combination results in reduction of various costs.
Increasing the Efficiency of factors of Production –
Through proper utilization of various factors of production, their efficiency can be increased to a great extent which can be obtained by reducing spoilage, wastages and breakage of all kinds, this in turn leads to saving of time, effort and money which is essential for the growth & prosperity of the enterprise.
Maximum Prosperity for Employer & Employees-
Management ensures smooth and coordinated functioning of the enterprise. This in turn helps in providing maximum benefits to the employee in the shape of good working condition, suitable wage system, incentive plans on the one hand and higher profits to the employer on the other hand.
Human betterment & Social Justice-
Management serves as a tool for the upliftment as well as betterment of the society. Through increased productivity & employment, management ensures better standards of living for the society. It provides justice through its uniform policies.
Responsibilities of Professional Management
The first and most important task of any manager is providing a direction to the organization. This entails mapping out their visions and missions. This is one task the manager must not delegate, but perform himself. Defining the company’s objectives helps unify the employees and gets them working towards a common goal.
One of the main roles and responsibilities of the manager is to manage the growth and ensure the survival of the firm. There are both internal and external factors that are a threat to this growth and survival of the firm. Internal factors (such as choosing the right technology, hiring the correct people etc.) are mostly in the firm’s control. External factors (government policy, economic conditions) pose a concern the manager must deal with.
Improving and Maintaining Efficiency:
The manager has many roles and responsibilities regarding the efficiency of the firm. Firstly he must ensure that the firm is efficient, i.e. resources are not being wasted. And then this efficiency has to be effectively maintained.
It is the task of the manager to be innovative in his job. He must find new and creative solutions to the problems faced by the firm. Innovation not only means having new ideas but also cultivating and implementing them. This is one of the on-going jobs of a professional manager.
The quality of the leadership usually dictates the future of a firm. Hence the manager must also be a good leader. He should be able to inspire and motivate people to work towards the goals of the company. A leader leads from the front, and the manager must also possess exceptional qualities and work ethic that his team members can learn from.
In any company or organization, change is a given. The manager has to be the agent of change in such cases. It is his roles and responsibilities to ensure the process of change is smooth and uneventful for the company.
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