Various Approaches of Organizational Behaviour

Approaches to Organizational Behaviour

Approaches to Organizational Behaviour

There are mainly four approaches to organizational behaviour. They are:

  1. Human resources approach
  2. Contingency approach
  3. Productivity approach
  4. Systems approach

Human Resources Approach

The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment, because people are the central resource in any organization. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can contribute to the best of their improved abilities. This approach is also known as ‘supportive approach’ because the manager’s primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance.

The superiors and managers should practice a style where workers are given the opportunities and encouragement to perform under loose supervision. By treating individuals as mature adults, organisations can increase productivity and at the same time meet the needs of individuals for independence and growth.

Contingency Approach

A contingency approach to organizational behaviour implies that different situations require different behavioural practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. Thus, it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the most appropriate manner.

The manager’s task therefore, is to identify which method will, in a particular situation, under particular circumstances and at a particular time, best contribute to the attainment of organization’s goals. Thus, the manager will have to analyze each situation prior to action and different managerial practices and styles are needed for effective management.

Productivity Approach

Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Productivity is considered to be improved, if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. But besides economic inputs and outputs, human and social inputs and outputs also are important.

For example, if better organisational behaviour can reduce worker’s turnover or the number of absentees, a human output or benefit occurs.

Systems Approach

A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the organization people’ employ ‘technology’ in performing the task’ that they are responsible for, while the structure’ of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their different activities. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organization, if the organization as a whole is to function effectively. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on the interaction between the organization and its broader environment,, which consists of social, economic, cultural and political environment within which they operate.

According to this approach, an organisation receives several inputs from its environment such as material, human and financial. These inputs are then processed so as to produce the final output in terms of products or services.

Inter-Disciplinary Approach

Organizational behaviour is an integration of all other social sciences and disciplines such as psychology, sociology, organizational theories etc. They all are interdependent and influence each other. The man is studied as a whole and therefore, all disciplines concerning man are integrated.

Conclusions

Organizations are dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways: First, the organization requires inputs’ from the environment in the form of raw material, people, money, ideas and so on. The organization itself can be thought of as performing certain transformation processes, on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of products or services. Secondly, the organization depends on environment such as, public to accept its output. The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that organizations must manage. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the interdependencies among people, tasks, technology and structure in order to perform their transformation processes effectively and efficiently. Organizations must also recognize their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist.

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