How to Impart Value Education
For it we will have to understand the sources and process of value development.
Source of Value Development
The chief domains of human life are social, cultural, religious, economic and political. In the viewpoint of sociologists, these are the chief sources of value development-
The society in which individual is born; he interacts with its members and learns behavioral norms of the society through this interaction. He developed devotion to them and he attaches waited to them and later they begin to guide and control his behaviour and become his value. Thus, society is the fundamental source of value development.
The greatest feature of a society is its culture the society in which an individual lives, its culture is his own. He learn and receive the culture of that society, that is its lifestyle and eating manners, behavioural norms, language, literature, religion, philosophy, ideals and beliefs in their specific form and gradually inculcates devotion to them and starts to give them weightage and his conduct starts to be guided and controlled by them. Thus, culture is the second most important source of value development.
The most influential element of the culture of a society is its religion. It has been seen that the family in which the child takes birth, he begins to accept the moral laws of that religion and gives weightage to them and his conduct is guided and controlled by them. Thus, religion is a chief source of value development.
The economic system of a society, state a nation is in itself a source of value development. For example, in a capitalist society there are two classes -bourgeoisie and proletariat has the feeling of hatred and animosity towards the bourgeoisie; and on the other hand, in a socialistic economic system, in which the able is respected, everybody loves one another and cooperate with one another. So it can be said that economic system too is the source of value development.
The authority of the state has always been supreme; it is another thing that it is very forceful in autocratic political system and somewhat flexible in democratic political system. So it is natural for the individual to give more significance to the principles and ideals as determined by the political system. Thus, the political system is also a source of value development.
Process of Value Development
Psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists have paid utmost attention to the process of value development in the individuals.
In the viewpoint of psychologists, there are three steps of value development in an individual – cognitive, affective and conative. According to them, the child accepts the behavioural norms, moral laws, principles and ideals of the society without having given a thought to them, later as he develops the weightage on them and gives place to them in his inner-self, and when these are connected with his emotions and make a place in his inner-self, they start to guide and control his behaviour. Until they guide and control his behaviour, they cannot be called values.
Anthropologists accept values in the form of cultural features. In their viewpoint, values are development by the process of enculturation. They clarify that the society in which the child takes birth, adopts the culture of that society that is adopts its lifestyle and eating manners, behavioral norms, language, literature, religion, philosophy and ideals and beliefs, and develops faith in them and gradually they begin to guide and control his behaviour, and thus they take the form of values.
In the viewpoint of sociologists, value development in an individual occurs with the process of socialization. They clarify that the society in which activities the child takes part, learns its language, adopt its behavioral norms and thus adjust with this society. Over a period of time he develops stable emotions for these and these stables emotions start to guide and control his behaviour and we start saying that values have been development in him.
In general, it appears that the process of socialization and enculturation are similar, but there is a difference between the two. An individual can be a member of several societies at the same time, such a family, scouts, political parties, club, etc., He has to learn different behavioral norms in order to adjust with these different societies, but his own culture is one, and he adopts its ideal and beliefs and he attaches weightage to them and is guided and controlled by them. If these two processes are considered again, we find that as the child becomes able to imitate, the process of his socialization and enculturation begin, these two processes continue simultaneously, they run by interaction among individuals and in a very natural way.
Now if we look minutely, we find that the type of social activities in which a child or youth takes part, his ideals and beliefs too develop accordingly. Social ideals and beliefs are developed by taking part in social activities, cultural ideals and beliefs are developed by taking part in cultural activities, religious ideals and beliefs are developed by taking part in religious activities, economic activities, and political ideals and beliefs are developed by taking part in political activities, and these take the form of values in long run. The chief role in their development is played by family. Community and school, therefore it becomes necessary to discuss their role and responsibility in detail.
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