Trypanosoma cruzi: Life Cycle | Prevention and Control

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Trypanosoma cruzi: Life Cycle | Prevention and Control

Classification

  • Phylum- Protozoa
  • Sub-phylum- Plasmodroma
  • Class- Mastigophora
  • Order- Zoomastigina
  • Genus- Trypanosoma
  • Species- cruzi

This species are the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis or chagas disease. It is widespread in south and central America and is more common in children. This protozoa is also transmitted by bugs of Genus Triatoma. The transmission of this protozoa to man is not by the bug’s bite but through its faeces.

Life Cycle 

The inoculation of this species in human beings may be anywhere on the exposed skin or on a mucous membrane. The most common location is at the outer canthus of the eye. Hear, the parasites multiply and are engulfed by the nearby macrophages. Their entry into outer macrophages produces a small granuloma (chagona) which obstructs the flow of lymph.

After 4 to 5 days, parasites reach into the blood stream and circulate as typical trypanosomes for about one month and cause systemic toxemia. Further, in the meantime, parasites are lodged in visceral organs as reticulo-endothelial tissues, myocardium, endocrine glands and brain cells. They multiply there as leishmania forms and destroy the host cells. The colonies of the parasites which develop in myocardium, cause destruction of cardiac muscle and in the brain cells cause extensive neuropathological changes. During the parasitemia phase of about 12 to 30 days, there exists marked toxic condition of typhoid fever and in children sometimes fatal termination. If patient survives in this acute stage or if it is by passed, the symptoms of further cronic disease depend on the distribution of parasite in different visceral organs. This stage may last for years with gradual increase in the chronic manifestation with several alternating phases of fever.

Prevention and control 

  1. In Chaga’s disease, the transmission of parasites by triatominae bug (Kissing bug) can be checked by a very simple process i.e., having crack free houses in which there is no chance of hiding and breeding of the bugs. Reservoirs, however, are so varied and so common that there is no hope of eradicating chaga’s disease.
  2. Primaquine and Puromycin are used for temporary relief from this disease.

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