# Linear sequences/ Linear programming: Characteristics & Features

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Linear sequences/ Linear programming: Characteristics & Features

#### Linear sequences / linear programming

Linear programming style was developed by B. F. Skinner. Linear programming style is related to “operant conditioning”. Operant conditioning states that human behaviour is shaped through suitable reinforcement to the responses. It tells that “A Certain direction can be given to human behaviour”, for this purpose activities is needed to divide in small parts and make their analysis. It is a gradual process and the responses are conditioned in a step by step manner.

In a linear programing, learner’s responses are controlled externally by the program sitting at a distant place. A linear program is called a straight line program as the learner starts from his initial behaviour to the terminal behaviour following a straight line. The student proceeds from one frame to the next until he completes the program.

#### Characteristics of linear programming

1. Linear are exposed to small amount of information and proceed from one frame to one item of information, to the next in an orderly fashion.
2. Linear responds overtly that their correct responses can be rewarded and heir incorrect responses can be corrected.
3. Linear are informed immediately about whether or not their response is correct (feedback).
4. Linear proceed at its own pace (self-pacing).

#### Features of Linear Programming

• Linear means proceeding in a straight line- In linear programming generally, information is broken into small steps of 40-50 words in length which is called a frame. The learner must respond to each frame in succession by filling in word or phrase in a blank.
• Linear Arrangement- In such type of program, the learner advances in a single series of shorts steps which are designed to ensure high rate of correct responding to the questions (frames). Same path is followed by each learner. The learner starts from initial behaviour to the terminal behaviour following straight-line sequence. All learners pass through the same path.
• Responses are controlled- In a linear programming, responses are controlled by the program. The responses and their order are fixed. The learner has no choice to respond in his own way.
• Response is emphasized– In linear programming, the emphasis is laid on response. The learner must respond to each and every in order the learning to occur.
• Feedback is quick- As soon as the learner responds to the frame he can immediately compare his response with the response of the program. Learners are informed immediately about whether or not their response is correct.
• Provision for prompt- In the beginning, prompt or cue can be supplied to facilitate learning to occur.
• Cheating is discouraged by not revealing the answer to the learner.
• Responses are self-constructed- Learners respond overtly so that their correct responses can be rewarded and their incorrect responses can be corrected.

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