Insects as Carrier of Diseases to Live Stock | Wandofknowledge
The insects are reported to transmit certain micro-organism causing diseases in live stock. Such insects belong to siphonoptera, Diptera, Mallophaga and Siphunculata. They are as under :
- Blackflies (Buffalo gnats) : These belong to order Diptera and family simullidae. They suck the blood of cattle. Its species are Simulium aureohirtum, Simulium indicum and Simulium simile which are cosmopolitan in distribution. Only few species transmit filarial disease in man. The mandibles are elongated particularly in females for biting and sucking the blood. Flies attack orifices of the body entering the years, nostrils and margin of eyes which may produce fever causing death.
- Horseflies : Horseflies belong to order Diptera and family Tabanidae which is cosmopolitan in distribution. Tabanus rubidus and Tabanus striatus are common species of horseflies. Only females feed on the blood of animals which cause deep wound resulting heavy blood loss. The fly transmits anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) and surra (Trypanosoma evansi).
- Lousefly : These belongs to order Diptera and family Hippoboscidae and parasitic on dogs and cattle and suck the blood. Hippobosca capensis, commonly known as ‘kukurmakhi’ attack on dog and Hippobosca maculata attack on horse and cattle. They feed much blood of mammal. Therefore, affect the health of dogs and cattle.
- Screw worm fly: These belongs to order Diptera and family Calliphoridae. Cochliomyia hominivorax has been severe pest of livestock in tropical and subtropical regions. Presently it is found only in central and South America. The females oviposit on the wounds and maggots feed directly on flesh. The infested animals may die if not treated properly.
- Warble fly : These belongs to order Diptera and family oestridae which is pest of goats, cattle and sheep. Hypoderma lineata and Hypoderma crossii is common warble flies in different parts of India. The larvae are parasitic and found in the tissues of the hide of cattle. The holes made in the hide by escaping larvae reduce the cost of leather.
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