Fayol’s General Principles of Management
Fayol’s General Principles of Management
Following are the general Principles of Henri Fayol :
Division of Work-
Division of work implies the principle of specialization. Total activities must be assessed, enumerated and then grouped on the basis of specialization. One special group of activities must then be assigned to a department and to person. This would promote efficiency and facilitate fixing of the responsibility.
Authority and Responsibility-
Authority and responsibility should go together and there should be parity in authority and responsibility. Authority implies power of command and exact performance while responsibility is an obligation to obey command and be liable in case of non-compliance of orders and non-performance of work. A manager should therefore possess adequate authority in view of his responsibilities and duties.
Fayol saw discipline in terms of obedience and respect to superiors. According to him, penalty for poor performance should be coupled with competent and fair supervision. No organization can get success unless its incumbents are respectful towards seniors and following are the principles of Henry Fayal fellow workers, objectives, policies, rules and procedures of the organization.
Unity of Command-
One subordinate should get command from one executive only. He should know from whom he will receive orders and to whom he is responsible to show work performance. Thus, dual subordination must be avoided to minimize buck passing, conflict and confusion.
Unity of Direction-
This principle calls for one manager one plan for all operations having the same objective. This will create dedication to the purpose, unity of action and facility of coordination.
Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest-
This principle stresses on the fact that interest of the organization should be considered supreme to that of an individual. This will require sacrifices of individual interests on the part of incumbents and exemplary behaviour on the part of managers.
This principle implies fair and adequate payment of wages to the employees in view of their service. It should also be fair from the point of view of the organization. This principle will help in generating satisfaction, efficiency and maintaining cordial relations.
There should be one central point in the organization where the entire authority should flow and responsibility should lie. Delegation and centralization of authority should be carefully through and exercised in view of varying needs of the organization.
Scalar Chain of authority-
A chain of command or scalar chain of authority must be created linking each individual at one point or the order. Thus, every individual should be brought under the direct or indirect command of the chief executive. However the chain of command should not be unnecessarily lengthy as it would involve unnecessary delays, communication bottle-necks and difficulties of coordination.
This principle applies to both men and the materials. There should be a place for everything and everything in its place. According to Fayol, this kind of order depends on precise knowledge of human requirements and resources of the concern and a constant balance between these requirements and resources.
This principle emphasizes that there should be kindness and justice in dealings with the subordinates. Managers should be both friendly and fair towards their subordinates. This will promote good will loyalty and harmonious relations in the organization.
Stability of Tenure-
Management must implement policies and adopt practices which commit employees for a long term. Stability of tenure will help in building permanent, contented and reliable workforce.
This principle emphasizes on the encouragement of independent thinking and taking initiative on the part of subordinate managers and operating people. Even if they commit certain mistakes in taking well thought independent decisions, they should not be discouraged. This will help people in the organization to develop, learn and exercise their initiative. They will feel more involved and responsible.
Esprit de Corps-
This principle states that union is strength, and emphasizes on team-spirit. Fayol defines Esprit de corps as unity of effort through harmony of interests. An organization can succeed only means of collective efforts in a team spirit.
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