Fatty Oils & their Classification
The fatty oils are non-volatile and consists of glycerine in combination with a fatty acid.
Classification of Fatty Oils
Fatty oils are classified into four types-
- Drying Oils
- Semi-drying Oils
- Non-drying Oils
- Fats or Vegetable Oils.
(A) Drying Oils
These oils are able to absorb oxygen and on exposure dry into thin elastic films. These used in plant and varnished. Some important drying oils are as follows:
This obtained from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum (Vern, flax plants) of the family and varnishes industries. The linseed oil is one of the oldest oil and has used as drying in paints oil in paints and varnishes industries. The oil contents are 32 to 43%. For the extraction of the seeds are collected. The oil is extracted by pressure with heat or by the uses of solvents. After extraction the oil cake is used as cattle feed. The linseed oil is yellow brown in colour and has an acid taste and smell. This is chefily used in making paints, varnishes, linoleum, soft soap and rinters ink. The chiefcentre of linseed plants in Argentina, but they are also cultivated in quite a good amount in U.S.S.R., India, China, Canada and United States.
Tung Oil or Chinawood Oil –
This is obtained from the seeds of Aelurites (A. Fordii and A. Montana) belonging to family Euphorbiceae and native to China. The oil is too dark brown in colour and used for water proofing would, paper and fabrics. It is a good preservative and very resistant to weathering, so it is particularly valuable for outside plants.
Soyabean Oil –
The Soyabean oil is extracted from the seeds of Glycine max Family leguminasae), by expression with hydraulic or expeller press or by the use of solvents. This soyabean oil used as a salad or cooking oil and for other food purposes. The oils has great versality and the list of industrial uses. The soyabean oil used in the manufacture of candles, soap, varnishes, Lacquers, paints, greases, Linoleum rubber substitutes, cleaning compounds insecticides and disinfectants. The oil cake has 40 to 48 percent protein content and is a valuable feed for livestock and a source of soyaflour. It is also used in making adhesives, plastics spreaders, foaming solution sizing, k fertilizers, a synthetic textile fibre and many other products.
The is obtained from the seeds of Perilla frutescens, (family Labiatae), an aromatic annual 3′ to 5′ in height with numerous branches. The plant, a native of Northern India, China and Japan is cultivated in a orient, particularly in Manchuria and Japan. The perilla oil is used in the manufacture of the famous Japanese oil papers, cheap lacquer paper umbrellas, water proof clothes, artificial leather and printer’s ink. This is also used as a food and in varnish and paint industry.
Poppy Oil –
This is obtained from the seeds of opium popyy- Papaver somnifreum (Family Papavaeaceae) (Verm. A feem). The plants are grown in India. Germany, France and a Many other countries. This is an edible oil and is also used in lamps, soap making and in paints.
(B) Semi Drying Oils
These oils absorb the oxygen slowly and only in limited amount. They from soft film only after long exposure. Some of these oils are edible, while the other are illuminating or used in making soaps and candles. A few of these oils are enlisted below –
Cotton Seed Oil –
The cotton seed oil is obtained from the seeds of cotton plant Gesspium (Family Malvaceae) on expression. The seeds contain 30 to 40% oil. The refined oil is of daily importance in human life. The plants are common in India, America, Japan etc. This is used in the manufacture of soap, washing powders, oils cloth,. artificial leather, insulating materials, roofing tar glycerine and nitroglycerin. The oil cake is important as a food stuff and fertilizer.
The corn oil is obtained from the embryos of the maize (zeamays: family Gramineae) grains. The plant forms one of the important cereals of India. The refined oil used for edible purposes while the crude oil has many industrial uses, such as the manufactures of rubber substitutes, soap and cheap paints. This is also used as lubricant.
Rape or Mustard Oil (vern, Sarson ke tel or Kadwa tel)-
This is the most important oils used in India. The oil is obtained from the seeds of various species of Brassica (Family cruciferae) i.e. B. campestris, B. Napus, B. Rapa. The oil contents are 30 to 45 percent, and the oils is extracated by expression or solvents. The plants are extensively cultivated in India. China, Japan and Europe, the crude oil is edible when cold pressed and is much used for greasing. It is also used in lamps, in oling in the manufacture of soap, an rubber substitutes, and for quenching or tempering steel plants. The refined oil, generally referred to as cloza oil; is also edible, and it is used as a lubricant for delicated machinery. This is also used as a hair oil. The oil cake used as good fooder and fertilizer.
Sesame Oil (vern. Till oil) –
This oil is obtained from the seeds of an annual herb; Sesamum indicum (Family Pedaliaceae). This is the chief oil of India and has been cultivated there and in China remote time. The seeds contain about 50 percent oil, which is easily extracted by cold pressure. The finer grades are tasteless and rarely colourless and are used as a substitute for olive oil in cooking and in medicine. European counters are enormous quantities; as a compulsory addition to margarine and other food products. The pooer grader of oil used for soap, perfumery and rubber substitutes, and to some extent as lubricants. In India this oil is used for anointing the body, as fuel for lamps and as food. The oil cake is a good cattle food. Sesame (Till) seeds are also used in the confectionary and baking industries.
(C) Non-Drying Oils
The oil remain liquid at ordinary temperature and do not form a film. These oils are edible and can also be used in the manufacture of soap and lubricants. The important ones of these oils are as follows:
Castor Oil (vern Arndi ka tel)-
The seeds (chiefly endosperm portion) of ricins communis (Family Euphorbiaceae) provide; this oil which finds its use in variety of economic uses. The oil is extracted by cold expression. The ultimate residue is poisonous. Castor oil is used in the manufacture of linoleum, soap, artificial leather, oil cloth, plastics typewriter ink etc. It is an excellent oil for lubrication especially aeroengines. It is one of the good purgatives and used in the form of emulsion. Its water resistance capacity is utilized in making coated fabrics, food containers, gums etc. In village it is still used for burning in lamps. The plant of Ricinus communis are cultivated both in tropical and temperate countries. The plants are found more commonly in Indian, China, Brazil and Maxico. The plant is anerect annual herb which is cultivated in loam or clay soils.
Peanut oil (vern Moongphali ke tel) –
The peanut oil is obtained from the seeds or “nut” of the common peanut of ground nut or Arachis hypogea of the family Leguminosae plant. The plant is most probably indigeneous to Brazil and now-a days chiefly cultivated in India, United States of America, China and Africa. The plant Arachis hypogea is particular by natie because the air borne flowers after pollination the thrust on elongating pediciles beneath the oil to mature them into the characteristics ground nuts. The seeds are shelled, cleaned and crushed and the oil is edible and used as a sland oil, for cooking. The inferior grades are used for soap making, lubricants and illuminations. The ground nut or peanut oil is converted into “vegetable ghee” after hydrogenation. The oil left behind is rich in proteins and is a valuable cattle feed.
Olive Oil –
This is obtained from the fruits of Olea-europea of family oleaceae. The plants are cultivated in South Africa, South America, Australia, United States and Maxico. This best quality of oil is golden yellow and obtained after pressing. The is mostlyused in salad, cooking, in canning, and medicines. The inferior quality of oil is used in soap making and lubrication. The oil cake is cattle food.
(D) Fats of Tallows or Vegetative Oils
These are actually non-drying fats and are extracted out drying the plant of their parts natural or artificial heat. They are edible and are also useful in the manufacture of soap and candles. The following are the important facts or vegetative oils of India.
Coconut oil –
This obtained from the dried endosperm of the seed of Cocos nucifera (family Palmae). It is one of the most extensively used of the fatty oils. The oils is pale yellow or colourless and is solid below 74°F. The nuts first of all harvested, then husks are removed and the nuts split open and dried by either natural or artificial heat. The dried meat or copra as it is called is the easily methods. This yield 65 to 80% oil, Refined coconut oil edible and is now extensively used for food products. It is almost indispensable for making candy bars and similar types of confectionary. This oil has long been used for the best soaps, cosmetics, salves, shaving creames, shampoos and other toilet preparations. This is the only oil used in marine soaps. The coconut palm (Coco nucifera) trees are widely distributed along the sea coasts. They commonly occur in Ceylon, India, Phillipine Island and the West Indies. Most of the oil is exported in Europe and United States, Japan although Ceylon and in India export large amounts. In India, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Orrisa, Maharashtra, Mysore, West Bengal and Assain are chief growing regions.
Palm Oil –
This obtained from the fruit of Elaeis quinensis (Family Palmae). The oil oildat ordinary temperature and is used in making soap. The best grade oil is edible. The plant is a native of Africa but now is found throughout the tropical regions.
Mohu Oils Mowra fat for Mahuna Butter –
This is obtained from the seeds of Madhuca Indica and Madhuca longifolia of the family sapotaceae. The seeds contain 55 to 65% of a soft yellow oil used for cooking and tallow.
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