Communication- Models, Types & Process
Models of Communication
There are four models of communication:
From one individual to another Individual:
Communication between two individuals is very common. This type of communication is mostly face-to-face and oral and takes place as a matter of routine. Sometimes, it is also a means of writing letters, memos, orders and through any other black and white means. Distant communication between two individuals may be performed by letters or telephones.
From one individual to a group of persons-
This type of communication is meant for public announcement or general information. Within organization, this type of communication is performed by circular letters, general notices, public announcements or through some symbolic medium (such as through whistling or striking the bell). For the outside world, this may be done through newspapers, pamphlets, radio announcements or the telecast. The selection of means would depend upon the size of the group, location of the recipients, cost and time of communication.
From a group of persons to an individual-
When many individuals communicate with one individual this type of communication is said to have taken place. For instance, when a delegation of workers meets and communicates its grievances to the chairman of the company or some executives meet the top boss and submit their reports of performance in a meeting, the communication will be said to have taken place between a group and an individual.
From one group to another group of persons-
When many people at one end communicate with many people on the other end, the communication is said to have taken place between two groups of individuals. Discussions in the meetings, expressing ideas and interactions between the members of a seminar and collective bargaining are the good examples of this type of communication.
The knowledge of communication models help in determining the effective language, medium, style, contents and the participants of communication. This will also help in determining time and cost of the communication.
Types of Communication
The organizational communication may be inter-scalar intra-scalar and extra-organizational.
Inter-scalar of Vertical Communication-
When communication takes place between two different levels of authority in the organization, it is called inter-scalar or vertical communication. The communication between the General Manager and the Financial Controller or between the Factory Manager and the Supervisor or between the Supervisor and the Worker are examples of vertical communication. It may be downward or upward, but it is vertical in nature.
Intra-scalar of Horizontal Communication-
Communication between two departments for executives on the same scalar level of authority is called intra-scalar or horizontal communication. This is also called cross contact or lateral communication. Exchange of information between two departmental heads or any two or more persons who are of equal status, such as two clerks or two workers, discussing the attitude of their boss, are the examples of horizontal, crosswise, or lateral communication. Intra-scalar communication increases understanding accentuates group unity, speeds action, aids morale and provides supplementary information. Much of such communication is oral and spreads through grapevine.
Communication that takes place between outside agencies and the people within the organization is known as extra-organizational communication. The correspondence between organization and its customers, creditors, bankers, government, trade unions, are the example of extra-organizational communications.
Communication Process consists of the following steps:
Identifying a need of communication-
The process of communication is initiated when an individual or a group wishes to convey some idea, fact, information or opinion to some other individual or group of persons. In an organization, the job of communicating information may be initiated by the executives as well as by the subordinates.
Encoding the message-
Converting message into an effective language is second step in the communication process. This step is known as encoding the idea into a meaningful language which may be understood by the receiver. The idea may be encoded in the words of mouth or may be reduced to any black and white form. The idea may also be encoded in the actions, gestures and in any symbolic language, which may convey the sense to the receiver. Facial expressions, winking of eye, raising eye brow, waiving hands, kissing slapping and whistling are effective languages in which the message may be encoded and transmitted.
Preparing the message-
Preparing the message which may convey the idea information, facts, instruction, order, grievance opinions or feeling, is the very essence of communication process. The form and the contents of the message should be carefully determined so that the communicator may convey the idea which he actually wishes to convey. Unprepared message may create misunderstandings, confusions and confidants.
Selecting the medium-
The medium is said to be the carrier of message. Messages may be conveyed verbally in a face-to-face communication, or by telephone in distant communication. Any written medium viz. order, memo, letter, circular, bulletin, graph or pictures, may be selected for conveying message. And emotions and feelings may be conveyed through actions and gestures of the body. A suitable medium should be selected in view the nature of message, time, cost, efficiency etc.
Receiving the message-
Communication being a two way-traffic presumes the existence of a re cleaver. There is no meaning and purpose of transmitting the message unless there is a receiver with whom the sender wishes to establish a common understanding over some information. Effective communication is always receiver-oriented and hence the language and the contents of the message should be so carefully selected that it may be understood by the receiver.
Decoding the message-
Decoding is the step of translating the encoded message into the effective language which may be understood by the receiver. Decoding is more important when mathematical symbols and equations, graphs, charts, codes and multi-syllabic language are used. Decoding may also involve interpretation of the coded language for the understanding of the recipients.
Feedback is the last, but not the least, step of communication process. Feedback is the process whereby the communicator ascertains whether the message has been received by the recipient and he has understood in the same sense. Feedback may be direct and immediate in face-to-face communication; it may be indirect and belated in other cases. Sometimes, it has to be gathered from the actions, decisions and reactions of the people. But without an effective system of feedback, the communication cannot be complete and effective.
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