Types and Agencies of Socialization- with pdf | Wandofknowledge
Types of socialization
Socialization occurs during childhood and adolescence, it also continues in middle and adult age. Orville F. Brim (Jr.) described socialization as a lifelong process. He maintains that socialization of adults differ from childhood socialization. There are various types of socialization, some are given below:
Primary socialization refers to socialization of the infant in the primary or earliest years of his life. It is a process by which the infant learns language and cognitive skills, internalizes norms and values. The infant learns the ways of a given grouping and is moulded into an effective social participant of that group. The norms of society become part of the personality of the individual. The child does not have a sense of wrong and right. By direct and indirect observation and experience, he gradually learns the norms relating to wrong and right things. The primary socialization takes place in the family.
The process can be seen at work outside the immediate family, in the ‘peer group’. The growing child learns very important lessons in social conduct form his peers. He also learns lessons in the school. Hence, socialization continues beyond and outside the family environment. Secondary socialization generally refers to the social training received by the child in institutional or formal settings and continues throughout the rest of his life.
In adult socialization, actors enter roles for which primary and secondary socialization may not have prepared them fully. Adult socialization teaches people to take on new duties. The aim of adult socialization is to bring change in the views of the individual. Adult socialization is more likely to change overt behaviour, whereas child socialization moulds basic values.
Anticipatory socialization refers to a process by which men learn the culture of a group, with the anticipation of joining that group. As a person learns the proper beliefs, values and norms of a status or group to which he aspires, he is learning how to act in his new role.
Re-socialization refers to the process of discarding former behaviour patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life. Such re-socialization takes place mostly when a social role is radically changed. It involves abandonment of one way of life another which is not only different from the former but incompatible with it. For example, when a criminal is rehabilitated, he has to change his role radically.
Agencies of Socialization
Socialization is the process by which culture is transmitted to the younger generation and they learn the rules and practices of social groups to which they belong and through that a society maintains its social system. Personalities do not come ready-made. The process, that transforms a child into a reasonably respectable human being is a long process. Hence, every society builds an institutional framework within which socialization of the child takes place. Culture is transmitted through the communication they have with one another and communication thus comes to be the essence of the process of culture transmission. In a society there exist a number of agencies to socialize the child. To facilitate socialization different agencies play important roles. These agencies are interrelated to each other.
The family plays an outstanding role in the socialization process. In all societies, other agencies besides the family, contribute to socialization such as educational institutions, the peer groups etc. But, family plays the most important role in the formation of personality. By the time other agencies contribute to this process family has already left an imprint on the personality of the child. The parents use both, reward and punishment to imbibe what is socially required from a child. The family has informal control over its members. Family, being a mini society, acts as a transmission belt between the individual and the society. It trains the younger generation in such a way that it can take the adult roles in proper manner.
Peer group means a group in which the members share some common characteristics such as age or sex etc. It is made up of the contemporaries of the child, his associates in school, in playground and in street. The growing child learns some very important lessons from his peer group. Since members of the peer group are at the same stage of socialization, they freely and spontaneously interact with each other. The members of peer groups have other sources of information about the culture and thus the acquisition of culture goes on.
Conflict arises when standards of the peer group differ from the standards of the child’s family. He may consequently attempt to withdraw from the family environment. The peer group surpasses the parental influence as time goes on. This seems to be an inevitable occurrence in rapidly changing societies.
Religion plays a very important role in socialization. Religion instills the fear of hell in the individual, so that he should refrain from bad and undesirable activities. Religion not only makes people religious but socializes them into the secular order.
Parents and peer groups are not the only agencies of the socialization in modern societies. Every civilized society, therefore, has developed a set of formalized agencies of education (schools, colleges and universities) which have a great bearing on the socialization process. It is in the educational institutions that the culture is formally transmitted and acquired, in which the science and art of one generation is passed on to the next. The educational institutions not only help the growing child in learning language and other subjects, but also instill the concept of time, discipline, team work, cooperation and competition. Through, the means of reward and punishment the desired behaviour pattern is reinforced, whereas undesirable behaviour pattern meets with disapproval, ridicule and punishment.
In this way, the educational institutions come next to the family for the purpose of socialization of the growing child. Educational institution is a very important socializer and the means by which individual acquires social norms and values (values of achievement, civic ideals, solidarity and group loyalty, etc.) beyond those which are available for learning in the family and other groups.
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