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School Records and Cumulative Records

School Records

What are School Records?

School Records are meant for keeping various purposes on account of teacher, students, head office, various activities etc. It is also used as and official record for keeping student’s grades, his achievements, academic performances and extracurricular performance.

Objectives of School Records

  1. To help the school-

    • To locate each pupil quickly.
    • To have available the facts significant about each pupil.
    • To explain and remove undesirable conditions.
    • To find if all legal requirements are met.
    • To determine if any administrative or other changes are desirable.
    • To make important investigation and case studies possible.
    • To reduce retardation and failure to the minimum.
  2. To help the Classroom-

    • To know pupil when the school year begins.
    • To determine the capability of each pupil.
    • To provide learning activities suitable for each student.
    • To formulate a basis for the intelligent guidance of pupils.
    • To explain the behaviour characteristic or unhappy conditions of any pupil.
    • To make possible the development of unusual capacities or exceptional talents.
    • To identify and make proper provisions for mentally retarded students.
    • To make assignments to committee work and monitorial positions.
    • To make periodic reports correctly and on time.
    • To be properly informed when conferring with parents and others about pupils.
  3. To help the Pupil-

    • To receive fair consideration in his classification.
    • To do his best in making a good record.
    • To make a progress in accordance with his ability.
    • To secure development of his natural capabilities.
    • To secure transfer of correct information to other schools when desired.
    • To receive proper adjustment and guidance.

Types of School Records

School records are classified into following types:

  1. General Records:

    • School calendar-

      It is a useful record which helps in the systematic organisation of the school activities. It gives clear picture of the various activities to be conducted throughout the academic year.

    • Log book-

      It contains a complete record of events and furnish material for a history of the school. It should mention special events, introduction of new textbooks, apparatus or courses of instructions, any lesson approved by the inspector, the visits of the inspecting officers and other distinguished persons interested in education, absence and illness of any of the school staff and any failure in duty on their part etc. should be recorded.

    • Visitor’s book
    • Service registers
    • Admission and withdrawal register
    • Transfer certificate book
    • General order book
  2. Financial Records:

    • Acquittance roll
    • Contingency
    • Contingent order book
    • Fee collection register
    • Abstract register or fees
    • Bill register
    • Register of donations
    • Registers of scholarships
    • Fund register
  3. Educational Records:

    • Pupil’s attendance register
    • Teachers’ attendance register
    • Class time-table
    • General progress register
    • Terminal examination result register
    • Headmaster’s supervision register
    • Cumulative records
  4. Equipment Records:

    • Stock book of furniture and school appliance
    • Library catalogue
    • Accession Register
    • Issue books, registers of newspapers and magazines received
    • Stock and issue register of sports material
  5. Correspondence Records:

    • ‘from’ and ‘to’ registers
    • Peon book
    • Memo book
    • File of department orders
    • Register of casual leave granted
  6. Account Books:

    • Cash book for daily receipts and expenditure
    • General ledger or classified abstract of the monthly totals
    • Remittance book
    • Register of pay bills
  7. Special registers maintained by the Basic Schools:

    • Craft work record
    • Community activity records
    • Production register
    • Producers’ register
    • Art work record
    • Hobbies record
    • Physical education programme records
    • Scholarship subjects achievement records.

Maintenance of School Records

We can maintain different school records through different ways. Some of them are enlisted below:

  1. Stock list-

    In every institution, a stock list of record and registers should be prepared.

  2. Particulars-

    The outer cover of each record/register should contain following particulars:

    • The name of the school
    • Serial number of the register
    • Name of the register
    • Number of volume
    • The number of pages in the volume and dates on which the volume was opened and closed.
  3. Pages-

    When a register is opened, page number should be mentioned consecutively, either with red ink or with a numbering machine.

  4. Registration-

    Registration should be kept tidy. Writing and figuring should be such that it should reflect neat appearance of the entries. Figures must not be joined. Registers should not be folded or the pages crumpled. Over-writing should not be permitted.

  5. Countersigning-

    Entries should be counter-signed by the principal. A new volume of a register should not be opened every year, if the previous volume is not completely filled. Whenever a fresh book is put into use, a remark on the flysheet of the book should be done that the previous volume has been fully used and lodged in the records should be recorded and the dater from which the new register is used and the number of pages it contains should also be noted there.

Cumulative Records

The cumulative record is a systematic accumulation of significant factual information about an individual which when progressively developed and maintained over a sufficient period of time, gives a summarized ‘growth record’ indicating the direction and rate of development.

Importance of Cumulative Records

  • The Secondary Education Commission has recommended the maintenance of cumulative record of each pupil by the class teachers. It should include not only personal data of the pupil but also his school-attainments, health report, personality traits and participation in activities.
  • Cumulative record play a vital role in indicating the growth and development of the pupil at each stage, his academic and emotional stage, his academic and emotional problems and his difficulties of adjustment if any and the directions in which remedial actions is to be taken to solve his problem or difficulties.
  • Cumulative record shifts the emphasis from one time or once a year performance to the full development in practically all the important aspects of education and general, physical, social and mental development over a longer period of time.

Objectives of Cumulative Records

  • To give a “comparative” achievement of pupils-

    A pupil’s achievement is compared with that of his class mates. This comparative function is helpful in selection, promotion and classification of students for various jobs in the school and later life.

  • To interpret progress and behavior-

    The cumulative information and data collected over a continuous period regarding a pupil helps us to understand his progress or lack of it and his behaviour is interpreted and proper guidance is provided according to it.

  • To preserve results-

    Cumulative record preserves the results of 4 to 10 independent and objective studies brought together on one card. It is based on the belief that such assessments are more informative than one, and that guidance may be more effectively given in the light of such a series of measurements than in terms of the results of one selective examination.

  • To give a full view of the student-

    It should show interests, preferences, achievements, leisure time activities, reading interests, behaviour, special attitude of students. It should show is status in different areas of the growth. It should disclose developmental trends by showing his status in these areas at different times in the past.

Characteristics of Cumulative Record 

  • It is started for each child at the time of his entrance into the school.
  • It is transferred as the child progresses from lower to higher school or moves to another school.
  • It presents a comprehensive picture of the child’s growth and development.
  • The forms used are simple and easy to understand.
  • Its maintenance does not require too much clerical work.
  • It is flexible, requiring a minimum of data for all pupils but permitting great latitude in the types of additional data which may be accumulated for individual pupils.
  • It so designed that it reveals trends of growth over a period of year. Data which are cumulative can be presented in chronological sequence.
  • It is readily accessible to teachers. However, the confidential nature of data must be respected and the records always kept in a secure place.
  • Teachers must distinguish between objective facts and subjective impressions.

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