Models of Teaching
Meaning and Definitions of Models of Teaching
The term model is used to mean a teaching episode done by an experienced teacher in which a highly focused teaching behaviour is demonstrated, in it an individual demonstrating particular patterns which the trainee learns through imitation. It is a way to talk and think about instruction in which certain facts may be organized, classified and interpreted.
Thus teaching models are just instructional designs. They describe the process and producing particular environmental situations which cause the student to interact in such a way that specific change occurs in his behaviour. Following are the important definitions of model of teaching-
- Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil describe a Model of Teaching as a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curricula, to design instructional materials and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings.
- According to K. Jangira and Azit Singh (1983): “A model of teaching is a set of inter-related components arranged in a sequence which provides guidelines to realize specific goal. It helps in designing instructional activities and environmental facilities, carrying out of these activities and realization of the stipulated objectives.” Thus, Models of Teaching are designed for specific purposes-the teaching of information concepts, ways of thinking, the study of social values and so on-by asking students to engage in particular cognitive and social tasks. Some models centre on delivery by the instructor while others develop as the learners respond to tasks and the student is regarded as a partner in the educational enterprise.
- Nelson L Bossing (1970): “Teaching model is a pattern or plan, which can be used to shape a curriculum or course, to select instructional materials and to guide a teacher’s action”. “It consist guidelines for designing educational activities and environment. It specifies was of teaching and learning that are intended to achieve certain kinds of goals”.
- According to Morse, “Models are prescriptive teaching strategies designed to accomplish particular instructional goals”.
- Robert S. Woodworth says “To confirm in behaviour, actions and to direct one’s action according to some particular design or idea”.
- According to Filburt Highet, “It is a set of inter-related components arranged in a sequence which provide guidance to realize specific goals”.
How to use teaching models
- Teaching models specify the learning situations for observing the pupils response
- They help in realization of learning objectives
- They help the teacher in planning and organizing effective teaching by selecting appropriate content teaching strategies and audio visual aids in education
- They help in planning curriculum
Characteristics of a Teaching model
Following are the Characteristics of a Teaching model-
- Encourage Art of Teaching- Teaching is considered as an art. Teaching models encourages this art by providing learning environment.
- Development of Inherent Abilities- Teaching models bring about the qualitative development of personality as it helps in developing human abilities. It also increases the teacher’s social competency.
- Based on Individual Differences– Teaching model uses the student’s interest, as it is constructed on the basis of individual differences.
- Influenced by Philosophy- Every teaching model is influenced by the philosophy of education. Hence, teachers formulate different models of teaching under the influence of the philosophy they believe.
- Answers Fundamental Questions- In every teaching model answers to all the fundamental questions pertaining to the behaviour of students and teachers are included.
- Providing Appropriate Experiences- Teaching models provides proper experiences to both teacher and student. Selecting the content and presenting it for learning before the students is the main essentiality of teaching. This difficulty is solved when a teacher presents appropriate experience before the students.
- Maxims of Teaching- The basis of teaching model is the maxims of teaching. They are the foundation of each teaching model.
- Practice and Concentration- The development of a teaching model is based on regular and continuous practice and concentration. The proper development of a teaching model is only possible when the assumptions are made clear by related thinking. These are based on the following specifications:
- Specification of Environment- It specifies in definite terms the environmental conditions under which a student’s response should be observed.
- Specification of operation- It specifies the mechanism that provides for the reaction of students and interaction with the environment.
- Specification of criterion of Performance– It specify the criterion of Performance which is accepted by the students. The behavioural outcome which the learner would demonstrate after completing specific instructional sequences are delineated in the teaching models
- Specification of learning outcome- It specifies what the student will perform after completing an instructional sequence.
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