Management- Concept and Characteristics
Management- Concept and Characteristics
Concept of Management
Following are the main concept of management-
Management as authority:
Most of the early management thinkers advocated this concept. According to this concept management is concerned with exercising authority to get work done from the people. The authorities, i.e., the managers take decisions and the subordinates i.e., the employees implement the decisions.
Management as an art:
This concept was propounded by renowned management thinker Harold Koontz and O’Donnell. According to them, “Management is the art of getting done through and with the people in formally organised group”. According to this concept managing, like all other arts, makes use of underlying organised knowledge – science and applies it in the light of realities to gain a desired practical result.
Management as a science :
According to this concept management is regarded as a science. Science is a systematized knowledge. It explains a given phenomenon. For example science of chemistry or astronomy. Science is exact in its relationship. For example, as per mathematical science 2 and 2 make four. In no circumstances the result will be different. However, management science is not that exact. For example to increase production we should motivate the worker by monetary incentives i.e., by increasing wages. It may not be true in all cases. Inspite of increase in monetary incentives, the production may not increase, or it may not increase in a pre-determined proportion.
Management as a process:
Theo Haimann has regarded management as a process. It is considered to be most important. In fact management is the art of getting things done through and with other people. He regards it as a process. This process consists of (i) planning, (ii) organizing, (iii) staffing (iv) directing and (v) controlling. The management process involves five M’s, i.e., (i) Men, (ii) material, (iii) machine, (iv) money, and (v) method.
F. W. Taylor vas the founder of this concept. According to him there is one best way of doing things. He was the first to recognize and emphasise the need for adopting a scientific approach to managing, and he coined the term scientific management to describe this approach. He observed that management was generally ignorant of the amount of work that a worker could do. The management was also not aware of the best method of doing the work. He suggested that the management should adopt a scientific approach in its work.
Management as leadership:
The propounders of this concept regard a manager a as lender. Just as a leader leads his follower to achieve a particular objective, similarly a manager also leads his subordinates to achieve a particular target (objective). According to this concept a manager should have all the qualities of a good leader. A good leader alone can achieve greater production and productivity.
Henry Fayol was the founder of this concept. He emphhasised the universality of management principles. This its principles of management apply not only to business but also to political, religious, philanthropic, military and other organizations. He held that since all enterprises require management, the formulation of a theory of management is necessary to its effective understanding.
Human relations concept:
The classical concept laid greater emphasis on management of physical resources. However, human relations concept paid greater attention to men behind the machine. It laid greater emphasis on understanding individual behaviour and group behaviour in an organization so as to motivate them to work and maintain good industrial relations.
Systems concept: It is of recent origin:
This concept was first propounded by modern management thinker Chester. I Barnard, President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Besides, Boulding, Katz, and Kahn, Forrester, Stafford Beer were also associated with it. It came into being only after the 1950’s. This concept regards management as a system. It lays greater emphasis on interdependence and inter-relationship of various activities in the organization.
Management as a profession:
This is the latest concept of management. Management all over the world is being regarded as a profession. All the advanced countries in the world like U.S,A.. Japan. France and Germany have recognized management as a profession. It is because of this that today there is great demand for management education.
Characteristics of Management
Following are the characteristics of management:
Management is universal-
Management process has universal applicability it applies to all formally organized group efforts irrespective of activities to which these relate. It is no longer exclusive to business.
Management is /purposeful-
Management has a purpose i.e., it is general to lead to the achievement of pre-determined objectives. Thus, in a business enterprise the objective of management is to earn a reasonable return in the invested capital.
Management involves decision-making:
Management is essentially decision making. Management process involves decisions- the evaluation and selection of alternatives in a complex environment – to get things done through others. Every manager is thus a decision maker and decision-making of the silken thread running through the entire process of management.
Management is a science:
A science is a systematized body of knowledge. It uses scientific methods for observations. Its principles are scientific and have universal applicability. Management also satisfies these basic characteristics. Management as a science has various concepts, hypothesis, principles, theories, etc. However, management science is less exact as compared to natural sciences.
Management is an art:
Management has been defined as the art of getting things done through and with other people. According to Koontz and O’ Donnel, managing like all other arts makes use of underlying organized knowledge i.e., science to gain a desired practical result.
Management is a profession:
Like other specialized professions such a medicine, law, etc, management has also acquired the status of a profession.
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