Approaches to reform in evaluation system
National Policy on Education, 1986
The National Policy on Education, 1986 recommended a new approach to examinations in the following words
- Assessment of performance is an integral part of any process of learning and teaching. As part of sound educational strategy, examinations should be employed to bring about qualitative improvement in education,
- The objective will be to recast the examination system so as to ensure a method of assessment that is a valid and reliable measure of student development and a powerful instrument for Improving teaching and learning in functional terms, this would mean:
- The elimination of excessive element of chance and subjectivity,
- The de-emphasis of memorization;
- Continuous and comprehensive evaluation that incorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of education, spread over the total span of instructional time.
- Effective use of the evaluation process by teachers, students and parents.
- Improvement in the conduct of examination; and methodology;
- The introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials phased manner, and
- Instruction of the Semester system from the secondary stage in a
- The use of grades in place of marks.
- The above goals are relevant both for external examinations and evaluations within educational institutions. Evaluation at the institutional level will be streamlined and the predominance of external examinations reduced. A National Examination Reform Framework would be prepared to serve as a set of guidelines to the examining bodies which would have the freedom to innovate and adapt the framework to suit the specific situations.” In this regard computer would be crucial for evaluation
The Programme of Action (POA) suggested several specific short-term and long-term measures for carrying out examination reform at the school level as well as at the university level It also suggested that. “to formulate a national examination reform work the Department of Education would inter- alia, constitute an inter institutional Committee with representations from UGC, NCERT, AICTE and state level organisations including Board of Secondary Education.”
Programme of Action (P.O.A.)
The Programme of Action (P.O.A.) has also made some strategies for implementation, which are as follows-
- The Minimum levels of Learning (MLLs) in language Tongue). Mathematics and Environmental Studies for classes 1 to V have been developed by MHRD at the national level. Similar exercise to develop these in the remaining area and classes of elementary curriculum will be carried out.
- Since no detention policy is envisaged at the primary stage, the main function of evaluation will be diagnostic in nature so as to provide remedial help to the pupils.
- The concerned agency in each state will prepare a flexible scheme of Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) at the elementary stage, so as to make the evaluation process an integral part of teaching and learning at this stage.
- Each State Board will lay down expected levels of attainments at classes IX to XII and prescribe appropriate courses, of studies to accomplish these levels in terms of knowledge and / or comprehension, communication skills, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, judgements etc.
- In each state, the concerned agency will prepare a flexible scheme of continuous comprehensive Examination for the secondary/ senior secondary stage to suit a variety of specific situations obtaining in different regions and types of schools. Certain models have been developed by NCERT and other agencies which could be looked into for guidance.
Higher Education Stage-
- Selection tests for admissions to all professional and technical courses will be conducted on an all-India basis.
- Each University will prepare broad guidelines for grading to be followed by individual colleges institutions and departments under its jurisdiction. Orientation programmes may be organised to familiarize the teachers with the grading system.
- The movement towards entrance tests for admission to institutions of higher education will be encouraged and promoted by UGC and State Government. The services of the National Evaluation Organization (NEO) should be utilized by the university system for developing, designing and administering entrance tests for admission.
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