Advantages & Disadvantages of MNCs
Advantages & Disadvantages of MNCs
Advantages of MNCs from the Viewpoint of Host Country:
Employment Generation :
MNCs create large scale employment opportunities in host countries. This is a big advantage of MNCs for countries; where there is a lot of unemployment.
Automatic Inflow of Foreign Capital:
MNCs bring in much needed capital for the rapid development of developing countries. In fact, with the entry of MNCs, inflow of foreign capital is automatic. As a result of the entry of MNCs, India e.g. has attracted foreign investment with several million dollars.
Proper Use of Idle Resources:
Because of their advanced technical knowledge, MNCs are in a position to properly utilise idle physical and human resources of the host country. This results in an increase in the National Income of the host country.
Improvement in Balance of Payment Position:
MNCs help the host countries to increase their exports. As such, they help the host country to improve upon its Balance of Payment position.
MNCs carry the advantages of technical development 10 host countries. In fact, MNCs are a vehicle for transference of technical development from one country to another. Because of MNCs poor host countries also begin to develop technically.
MNCs employ latest management techniques. People employed by MNCs do a lot of research in management. In a way, they help to professionalize management along latest lines of management theory and practice. This leads to managerial development in host countries.
End of Local Monopolies:
The entry of MNCs leads to competition in the host countries. Local monopolies of host countries either start improving their products or reduce their prices. Thus MNCs put an end to exploitative practices of local monopolists: As a matter of fact, MNCs compel domestic companies to improve their efficiency and quality. In India, many Indian companies acquired ISO-9000 quality certificates, due to fear of competition posed by MNCs.
Improvement in Standard of Living:
By providing super quality products and services, MNCs help to improve the standard of living of people of host countries.
Promotion of international brotherhood and culture:
MNCs integrate economies of various nations with the world economy. Through their international dealings, MNCs promote international brotherhood and culture; and pave way for world peace and prosperity.
Limitations of MNCs from the Viewpoint of Host Country
Danger for Domestic Industries:
MNCs, because of their vast economic power, pose a danger to domestic industries, which are still in the process of development. Domestic industries cannot face challenges posed by MNCs. Many domestic industries have to wind up, as a result of threat from MNCs. Thus MNCs give a setback to the economic growth of host countries.
Repatriation of Profits:
(Repatriation of profits means sending profits to their country). MNCS earn huge profits. Repatriation of profits by MNCs adversely affects the foreign exchange reserves of the host country; which means that a large amount of foreign exchange goes out of the host country.
No Benefit to Poor People:
MNCs produce only those things, which are used by the rich. Therefore, poor people of host countries do not get, generally, any benefit, out of MNCs.
Danger to Independence:
Initially MNCs help the Government of the host country, in a number of ways; and then gradually start interfering in the political affairs of the host country. There is, then, an implicit danger to the independence of the host country, in the long-run.
Disregard of the National Interests of the Host Country:
MNCs invest in most profitable sectors; and disregard the national goals and priorities of the host country. They do not care for the development of backward regions; and never care to solve chronic problems of the host country like unemployment and poverty.
Misuse of Mighty Status:
MNCs are powerful economic entities. They can afford to bear losses for a long while, in the hope of earning huge profits-once they have ended local competition and achieved monopoly. This may be the dirties strategy of MNCs to wipe off local competitors from the host country.
Careless Exploitation of Natural Resources:
MNCs tend to use the natural resources of the host country carelessly. They cause rapid depletion of some of the non-renewable natural resources, of the host country. In this way, MNCs cause a permanent damage to the economic development of the host country.
Selfish Promotion of Alien Culture:
MNCs tend to promote alien culture in host country to sell their products. They make people forget about their own cultural heritage. In India, e.g. MNCs have created a taste for synthetic food, soft drinks etc. This promotion of foreign culture by MNCs is injurious to the health of people also.
Exploitation of People, in a Systematic Manner:
MNCs join hands with big business houses of host country and emerge as powerful monopolies. This leads to concentration of economic power only in a few hands. Gradually these monopolies make it their birth right to exploit poor people and enrich themselves at the cost of the poor working class.
Advantages from the Viewpoint of the Home Country
- Some of the advantages of the MNCs from the viewpoint of the home country are:
- MNCs usually get raw-materials and labour supplies from host countries at lower prices; especially when host countries are backward or developing economies.
- MNCs can widen their market for goods by selling in host countries; and increase their profits. They usually have good earnings by way of dividends earned from operations in host countries.
- Through operating in many countries and providing quality services, MNCs add to their international goodwill on which they can capitalize, in the long-run.
Limitations from the Viewpoint of the Home Country
Some of the limitations of MNCs from the viewpoint of home country may be:
- There may be loss of employment in the home country, due to spreading manufacturing and marketing operations in other countries.
- MNCs face severe problems of managing cultural diversity. This might distract managements’ attention from main business issues, causing loss to the home country.
- MNCs may face severe competition from bigger MNCs in international markets. Their attention and finances might be more devoted to wasteful counter and competitive advertising; resulting in higher marketing costs and lesser profits for the home country.
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- Motivation leading to Mergers & Acquisition
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